Peter Baltes

LA VIDA BUENA

Teoría crítica del vivir

ISBN 9972-603-16-4

Lima: Universidad del Pacífico. 1999/2004

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PEDIDOS

-  PeruBookstore.com, S/. 28.00

-  En otro caso: Universidad del Pacífico, Avenida Salaverry 2020, Lima 11, Perú

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El libro actual de Peter Baltes: Principles of Life Technique. 2012.

ver google: life-technique.info

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 "I have come here based upon mutual interest and mutual respect."

                          "America is not a self-interested empire."

                                             Obama´s Speech in Cairo, delivered on June 4, 2009.

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E-mail: peter.baltes@lebenstechnik.de

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Desde el Imperativo Categórico del genial filósofo Immanuel KANT (1785) las ciencias humanas habían comprendido que, en principio, toda persona tiene el derecho a una vida buena. Pero debido al egoismo de la naturaleza humana, la teoría filosófica y la realidad social se acercaron sólo lentamente. En América del Norte, conquistado por los europeos, continuaba el genocidio de los indígenas, en la parte española de América los europeos negaron a los indíginas una suficiente formación y educación, limitando así sus posibilidades. Hasta fines del siglo veinte, los indígenas, en su mayoría,  no tenían el poder real de alcanzar un buen vivir moderno.

El estudio de la historia américana, especialmente de la parte española, me ha convencido de la necesidad de desarrollar una filosofía que no queda en lo teorético sino que ofrece instrumentos eficaces para alcanzar el buen vivir de los individuos y de las sociedades. (Ha sido publicado también en alemán bajo el título Lebenstechnik y en inglés bajo el título Critical Theory of Good Living.)

Trasciendo el objetivo inicial ha resultado una filosofía válida universalmente. Su reconocimiento más importante: el egoismo es la fuerza fundamental del hombre. El egoismo, el interés propio, es necesario como base de toda vida, pero el egoismo no limitado agrava y hasta impide la buena vida común - en nuestro mundo de escasos recursos. Es por lo tanto la tarea de la formación individual adquirer una fuerte técnica de la vida, la base del buen vivir, y es la tarea de la educación enseñar como transformar todo egoismo en un interés propio justificado.

Reconozco con gratitud que el desarrollo de esta filosofía no me hubiera sido posible sin la ayuda y el apoyo de destacados científicos de la Universidad Católica del Perú, de la Universidad de Trier en Alemania y de la Universidad del Pacífico en Lima.

 

ÍNDICE

I.      El mundo del hombre

II.     El principio de la igualdad de derechos

III.    La estructura de la vida

IV.    El concepto de vida

V.     Los seis pasos del actuar. El modelo MACORE

VI.     El autoconsejo

VII.    La comunicación argumentadora

VIII.   La producción y el consumo: Economía de mercado

IX.     El modelo de la Teoría Crítica del Vivir

Glosario

Bibliografía

Ilustraciones

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09.01.2012

Development of the theory and its exemplary application

(Roey and Gareth Jones, I thank you for all the necessary language corrections)

The development of the theory is based on a perspective that asks what major theorists have recognized of the fundamental problems of our world. It is to ask questions and search for the best answers.

- How do I classify this problem in my life world?

With the help of PARSONS (1966) we divide the human world in culture, community, personality, corporeality (human body) and environment, calling this system in its entirety the "life structure".

- What is causing the problem?

The best way to understand life is to conceive it as a constellation of forces. NEWTON (1687) recognized that all forces are parts of a coherend system, HEGEL (1812) , that all forces work mutually. All elements of the life-structure are consequently forces acting positively or negatively. This explains why the whole is more than its parts. The interacions between the parts are added. Such a melody is more than the sum of its tones. KANT (1785) recognized , that humans can free themselves from forces of the system, they can invent new forces. He has recognized in this way the equality of all humans for a good life as the moral force.

(Those who may criticise this selectiv process of forming a theory should consider: On the dining table are cups, plates, pitchers, knives, forks, spoons. All these objects were invented by different people at different times, but now they are used together - with the ideas of good manners - to solve problems of a good life).

- How will the problem be solved?

All elements of the "life structure" are conditions of life that cause either the problem or can be used for the solution of the problem. This is the content which is to combine with the formal side: Every problem is to be solved with the help of six steps of an action: goal, analysis, conception, organization, realization and evaluation (GACORE). Elements of the life structure and the six steps are the instruments to solve a problem.

Exemplary applications,

arranged with the help of the “life structure”

Culture

We distinguish between behaviour und action. The action is a subset of behaviour, a behavior which is based on arguments.

Actions are possibly only to human beings, animal and plants behave. Should we therefore one day come in contact with extraterrestrial beings, they would be equal to human beings if they are accessible to arguments.

Religion and faith are beyond the scientific argument. The different religions each of them are more or less different system of miracles which you can believe or not. But to consider too, no one has been able to prove that God does not exist. The different religions are to explain as more or less different attemps to understand this world power.

To consider too: Rats, guided by scientists to a labyrinth, know nothing of the scientist and the control. But the intellectual difference between rats and humans is almost infinitely smaller than that between a human being and the world-power that we call God. In consequence what can humans know about this power?

Community

An essential feature of evolution is that all life has to be selfish. This also applies to the human beings, who are dependent on the community from birth. Since both come together, the self-interest in the community must be a basic problem.

Every community needs an economic system. This works best - in terms of a good life for all - if it is based on a market economy. On the market the self-interest of the buyer meets the self-interest of the seller and so the product and its price can be negotiated mutually. Therefore everyone should be able to participate in the market, and this is the economic task of education.

Marketability, to choose a biblical example, are neither Jacob nor Esau. Neither Esau in his short-sighted, greedy self-interest, nor Jacob, in his successful but amoral behavior. Justified marketable, however, is everyone who can enforce its own (economic) interests, but only approximately, since he has to take into account the claim by the others on a good life - in a world of limited resources.

The economic systems of the different societies are based on self-interest, on the pursuit of individual good life. Therefore the globalisation of the markets has profound consequences. The current economic crisis in 2012 is only at first glance purely financial, a debt crisis. The essential cause is the approach of the standards of good life among the countries and their individuals. The price of labour and of the goods produced in the developing countries steadily increase, consequently too the price of their exports.

The U.S., as example, has become increasingly a consumer society, they do not produce enough and close the deficit by buying in low-cost countries. China has now accumulated dollars to unimaginable heights. Would China suddenly sell their dollars the U.S. would come under great difficulties. So to say: the U.S. depends already on the Chinese policy.

Money is the universal medium of exchange between the producer and the consumer, it gives everyone the best opportunities to have a good live. Now money is largely on paper so in this form its production is virtually unlimited. There is more money than goods. Mild to severe inflation are therefore the norm. Paper money constantly loses value.

Therefore, contracts are unsure, such as life-insurances, when they assure the flow of a determinated sum of money in a distant future. Better is the possession of land. The earth is not growing, but the number of people and their claims are. The value of usable land will therefore rise.

Market economy or capitalism? The vital events are the production of goods and their consumption. Between them stands money as a general medium of exchance. The money, the capital is thus only a part of the economic market. Because of its generality it is possible to separate the money from the products. This is the base of the money market and its nearly reckless acts.

The money market can flourish, more or less independently from the real situation of the economy in its totality, which means, nearly independently from the quality of life of the majority of citizens.

Therefore, capitalism cannot be the best form of economy. Better to match the social market to the necessities of the people. This market includes producing, consuming and the money, the capital market. Its social component includes the necessities of the people who are not able to participate fully in the market: children, elderly, the sick.

Personality

Basic objectives are the assurance of existence and the extension of existence. The assurance of existence is the most powerful force, and is the precondition of the (cultural) extension. The "Dark Middle Ages" was dominated by Nordic peoples who came from the areas where the assurance of existence fully exhausted its forces. And those who live in fear of bombs in basements and tunnels care little for the good life of others.

In our world of limited resources and of self-interest, it is difficult for the every person generally to achieve a good life. Imperative is an appropriate and justified concept of life, that includes consciously aims for present and future, that gives the necessary force to act.

Looking forward to the achievement of goals makes for happiness regardless of age. But possibilities are only more or less approximations. Every person therefore has to select areas and objectives that correspond to her abilities. So he or she can work so well that others gladly pay for it.

In a world dominated by self-interest, we should not be a satellite, we should be a nearly independent sun, living its own life. But suns are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. So it is most probable that the more elements of the life structures a partnership has in common (projects, children, goals), the more stable it will be.

Corporeality

A healthy life is a basis for the good life. Nicotine, alcohol and drugs are hazards. Sports, for example, are positive. If a child participate successfully in sports, experiencing the joy of victory, he will be likely to give up what hinders the success. Educators are therefore required to guide children accordingly.

However, the natural desire of the child to be independent makes it difficult to guide him directly by arguments. Educators have therefore to avoid appearing as a commander and preacher of his life. Instead condition management has good effects: Create favourable conditions that indirectly guide the child to a healty life. The conditions are apparently the working forces, not the educator.

Environment

Man has evolved out of nature. The theory of evolution recognizes that a living being has most probably left descendants if he has reacted best to his environmental conditions. Modern human has therefore an essential interest in ensuring that the conditions of his past do not change.

Changes in the environment are therefore to be examined very critically. They are to be implemented cautiously. Only if they mean a sustainable assurance or expansion of existence, morally examined, are they justified.

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I shall be happy to answer questions about the book and these examples.

E-mail: peter.baltes@lebenstechnik.de

Postal address: Peter Baltes, 54426 Dhronecken, Weyer Damm 1-2, Germany.

 

 

 

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Home-pages (Google):

lebenstechnik.info

teoría-del-buen-vivir.com

theory-of-good-living.com

life-technique.info (Free copy of the book. Principles of Life Technique (2012).

lebenstechnik.de

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